Excerpt for The Story Of World History by , available in its entirety at Smashwords

 

 

 



The Story of World History

 

 



 

The Glory of Past Civilizations

 

 

 

 

Claude Stahl


Copyright © 2018 Copyright - by Claude Stahl All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form including information storage and retrieval systems, without the permission in writing from the author and publisher”









Smashwords Copyright Note

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the author.


Disclaimer: The author of this book is not liable for the actions of any reader of this book; all the information is of the author's personal opinion. 



Chapters

Chapter 1 Introduction to the History of the World

Chapter 2 The Ancient Origins of Humans and Civilization

Chapter 3 Ancient Egypt

Chapter 4 The Old Kingdoms

Chapter 5 The First Cultures

Chapter 6 Early Dynastic History

Chapter 7 The First Intermediate Perdiod

Chapter 8 The Classical Perdiod

Chapter 9 The Second Intermediate Perdiod

Chapter 10 The New Kingdom Period

Chapter 11 The Hieroglyphs

Chapter 12 Egyptian Gods

Chapter 13 Ramesses The Great

Chapter 14 Mesopotamia, Babylin and Egypt

Chapter 15 The Detoriation of Egypt

Chapter 16 The Late Period

Chapter 17 The Phonicians

Chapter 18 Ancient Greek Civilization

Chapter 19 The Cycladic Civilization

Chapter 20 The Minoan Area

Chapter 21 Towards the Classical Epoch

Chapter 22 Sparta and Athens

Chapter 23 Classic Greek Philisophy

Chapter 24 Alexander The Great

Chapter 25 The Story of The Roman Empire

Chapter 26 A City and Republic

Chapter 27 The Punic Wars

Chapter 28 Julius Caesar and Augustus

Chapter 29 Emperial Rome

Chapter 30 The Early Dynasties

Chapter 31 Pax Romana

Chapter 32 The Julio-Claudian Dynasty

Chapter 33 The Flavian Dynasty

Chapter 34 The Five Good Emperors

Chapter 35 The Devision of the Empire

Chapter 36 Constantine and Christianity

Chapter 37 United for a Last Time

Chapter 38 The Decline of the Roman Empire

Chapter 39 The Downfall

Chapter 40 The Empire Continues to Exist the East

Chapter 41 The Early and High Middle Ages

Chapter 42 Reconquest Under Roman Emperor Justinian

Chapter 43 The Byzantine Empire

Chapter 44 The Frankish Kingdom and Brittania

Chapter 45 Europe Did Not Become Islamic

Chapter 46 The Occupation of Italy

Chapter 47 Charlemagne

Chapter 48 Vikings And Sarazenes

Chapter 49 Feudalism and the Church

Chapter 50 The Holy German Empire

Chapter 51 The Islamic Arabs Press Westwards

Chapter 52 Genua, Venice and the Fall of Constantinopel

Chapter 53 The Crusades

Chapter 54 The Renaissance

Chapter 55 Revival of the Arts and Great Renaissance Humanists

Chapter 56 Pre Colombian America - The Azteks and Incas

Chapter 57 The Achievements of the Azteks

Chapter 58 The Incas

Chapter 59 Cusco

Chapter 60 Columbus and the European Conquest of the Americas

Chapter 61 The Age of Discoveries and Conquistadores

Chapter 62 Hernandez Cortez and the Conquest of Mexico

Chapter 63 Francisco Pizarro- The Ruthless Conquerer of the Incas

Chapter 64 Other European Natipns Jin the Conquests

Chapter 65 Europre's Religious Conflicts

Chapter 66 Russian History

Chapter 67 Peter The Great

Chapter 68 The Early Period of the Unitex States of America

Chapter 69 Early Settlements in Jamestown

Chapter 70 The New England Colonies

Chapter 71 Battles with Britain

Chapter 72 Asian History

Chapter 73 Early Civilizations in the Indian Subcontinent

Chapter 74 The History of India

Chapter 75 The Valley Civilization

Chapter 76 The Verdic Period

Chapter 77 The Ancient Caste System

Chapter 78 Hinduism and Buddhism

Chapter 79 Cyrus of Persia

Chapter 80 The Indian Empires

Chapter 81 The Middle Kingdoms

Chapter 82 The Golden Era

Chapter 83 The Decline of Empirers and the Beginning of Islam

Chapter 84 The Sultanate of Delhi

Chapter 85 The History of China

Chapter 86 Historic Dynasties

Chapter 87 The Shang Dynasty

Chapter 88 The Zhou Epoch

Chapter 89 The Spring and Autumn Period - The Warring States

Chapter 90 The great Wall

Chapter 91 The Confucian School

Chapter 92 The First Imperial Period

Chapter 93 The Terracotta Army

Chapter 94 The Han Dynasty

Chapter 95 The Fall of the Han and Rise of the Xin Dynasty

Chapter 96 The Tang Dynasty

Chapter 97 The Song Dynasty

Chapter 98 Genghis Khan

Chapter 99 The Ming Dynasty

Chapter 100 Admiral Zeng Discovers New Worlds

Chapter 101 The Yongle Emperor

Chapter 102 The Arrival of the Europeans

Chapter 103 The Japanese History

Chapter 104 The Age of Courtiers

Chapter 105 The Age of Warriors

Chapter 106 The Civil War

Chapter 107 Stability and Seclusion

Chapter 108 Modernization Through Westernisation

Chapter 109 North America

Chapter 110 The Great Proclamation & Birth of the United States

Chapter 111 The America Revolution

Chapter 112 The Foundation of the United States of America

Chapter 113 Advancements in the United States

Chapter 114 The American Civil War

Chapter 115 Europe: Modern 18th CenturyAchievements

Chapter 116 The French Revolution And Napoleon

Chapter 117 The Industrial Revolution and World Domination of European Nations

Chapter 118 Emerging Nationalism

Chapter 119 The Long 19th Century

Chapter 120 Prussia and the British Empire

Chapter 121 Europe - Expansion and Competition

Chapter 122 Late Imperial France

Chapter 123 The Division of China and the Colonisation of Africa

Chapter 124 Prelude to World War I

Chapter 125 World War I - The Course of the War

Chapter 126 Conclusion and About the Author

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD

Although modern humans today live roughly for 200,000 years, they only began to record history from around the 3rd century BCE. 

Throughout history, new civilizations emerged and empires crumbled. We can and should rediscover old cultures that eventually lead to our own. Especially today, it is important to get an unbiased perspective of world history, to learn the basics but also the true identities of past cultures, and furthermore to understand historical timelines of countries and areas, because every country in the world boasts its own unique history and cultural identity. 

Through history, we can learn humanity, achievements, and glory by our own standards. Even through a compact book we can discover what historic glory means, and the most important civilizations all have stories to tell, from which we can draw our own personal conclusions on heritage and who we are. History actually never repeats itself; nevertheless, the past can guide us as we head into the future. By examining and comparing history and cultures and their timelines we will be able to get an unbiased overview of the development not only of historical events but of the development of great cultures so that today’s culture and current events make more sense. 

 





Chapter 2

THE ANCIENT ORIGINS OF HUMANS AND CIVILIZATION

Most scholars still agree that the "African origin" model holds that all or nearly all modern human genetic diversity around the world can be traced back to the first anatomically modern humans to leave Africa. 

The first Homo sapiens came out of North East Africa, approximately 70 thousand years ago, and for at least 40,000 of those years they obtained almost all of their food sources by hunting and gathering. 

This species then migrated out of Africa along a coastal route via the Arabian Peninsula to South- and Southeast Asia, and eventually reached the Pacific and Australia. About 50 thousand years ago, the first modern humans, a subspecies of Homo sapiens, migrated from Africa to Asia Minor, and over the Caucasus to Europe; regarding the history of Modern humans reached Central Europe about 40 thousand years ago. Humans also migrated to the Americas about 15 thousand years ago; most came over the land-bridge which is now called the Bering Strait. 

 The 10th millennium BC saw the invention of agriculture and the beginning of the ancient era. 

The Neolithic Age, Era or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, which included primitive tools beginning about 10,200 BC.  Hunter-gatherers of that time had access to goods and tools that prehistoric hunter-gatherers did not have, due to trade with neighboring tribes and early agrarian societies. Most modern hunter-gatherers could already forge iron, making hunting and cutting tools of stones and bones which made primitive agriculture and hunting considerably easier. 

Then, within a period of about appr.8,000 years, the great majority of humans were making their living by stock breeding and farming. This age is widely considered as the beginning of the rise of mankind.

 In the 7th millennium BC, the Jiahu culture along the Yellow River began in China. Their cultural symbols included one of the world's earliest examples in the history of writing, carved into tortoise shells and bones. By the 5th millennium BC, the late Neolithic culture in East Asia saw the invention of the wheel, the spread of proton-writing as well as evidence of metallurgy. This was also the time when the first armies, consisting of soldiers from city states were established to fight nomadic hordes. 

The 30th century BC, referred to as the Early Bronze Age, saw the beginning of the literate period in Mesopotamia (Today Iraq). Widely considered to be one of the cradles of civilization in the Bronze Age, the area of Mesopotamia included the first civilizations such as the Sumer and Babylonian civilizations. 

Agriculture moved slowly from Mesopotamia into Ancient Egypt, and around the 27th century BC, the Old Kingdom of Egypt where the system of hunter-gatherer was completely replaced by agriculture and its integrated water-management. 

 





Chapter 3

Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt is one of the most intriguing epochs of world history, as it is one of the cradles of humankind. Egypt is probably the most important ancient high-culture, that boosted and effected many others in early antiquity; until today it is seen as a mesmerizing and mystique culture, which continues to inspire mankind. 

Egypt has not always been known under its famous name. Throughout history, the country on the Nile river had different names and originally the Greek mentioned it by the name of Aegyptos, which actually their own version for Hwt-Ka-Ptah, a spiritual name, meaning the guardians of the Spirit of Ptah, which was one of the earliest deities in the region. 

 





Chapter 4

The Old Kingdom

The Old Kingdom was named Kemet, which referred to the Black Land – because of the richness and black soil found on the banks of the River Nile. Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization located in Northeastern Africa and concentrated along the lower shores of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. 

Lower Egypt and the Nile Delta are the places where the earliest settlements and historic communities sprang up. Eventually it was then renamed by the Arabs as the country of Misr, meaning country, and is still used by Egyptians today. 

From 8,000 to 525 BCE, Egypt was independent from neighboring civilizations in the Arabian peninsula, and during that time they developed their iconic and timeless architecture, arts, science and general cultural progression. 

Throughout history, many monuments and structures survive from all periods of time, but especially the timeless monuments of Egypt inspired many other civilizations, both in antiquity and the modern era. 

Around the ninth and eight centuries BCE there were already Egyptian influenced cattle raising and agriculture in the Saharan Desert, far from the Nile. 

Early hunter-gatherers started to settle near the lower Nile River sometime before 6,000 BCE. Only eight hundred years later, around 5200 BCE farming commenced around the northern the Nile and its delta, which led to further developments of early regional states and the development of early local kingdoms. Trade in the eastern Mediterranean as well as urban culture emerged around 5,500 BCE, this was also around the same time when faience and sculpture workshops were appearing in the ancient city of Abydos. 

The first pre-Egyptian dynastic and unifying culture was the Banarian culture, an early conglomerate of small kingdoms that sometimes gathered around one king or tribe. However, this culture was unified in language, trading customs and arts. 

 





Chapter 5

The First Cultures

Badarian culture was followed by the Nagada-Amratian Culture, the Gerzean Culture and the Negada Culture, each of whom laid important foundations for the future Egyptian civilizations. Recorded history appears to begin around 3,400 and 3,200 BCE with the introduction of the hieroglyphic scripts, which were developed by the Nagada (III) culture. Mummification was widespread throughout society and was first utilized in the city of Hierakonpolis. The ancient city of Xois was the centre of the priesthood, but was later abandoned. However, the priests and religious leaders re-established their center of influence further to the east. Gradually, the population rose and more settlements around the Nile river formed into urban towns. 





Chapter 6

Early Dynastic History

The Earliest Dynastic history of the Egyptian dynasties dated to around 3 150 to 2,600 BCE, whereby the early dynastic period saw North Egypt and South Egypt become united under King Menes. He was originally king of Upper Egypt, who controlled the north around 3,150 BCE. Early Egypt relies mostly on resources from the chronicler Manetho, a third century BCE antiquarian, who lived amid the Ptolemy Dynasty, and whose chronologies remain one of the most recognized sources on the earliest Egyptian history. 

According to early Greek sources, king Menes was conquering all of northern Egypt, and became known as the first unifier of the country. 

However, many scholars still believe that Menes is actually the early king Narmer. 

Nowadays, most scholars associate Menes more with King Hor Aha, or Aha, who was supposed to be his successor. Just like the roman title of Augustus, Menes is thought to be a title, translating into an early uniter of the country, and as someone who can expand a new kingdom over many generations; Menes is more of a succession to numerous rulers instead of just a king. 

However, one of the most powerful monarch was king Narmer, he ruled Lower Egypt, in the north from the city of Hierakonpolis and later Memphis. He oversaw many new cultural developments; for instance, those of the famous mastaba tombs (the precursors of the pyramids) and the advancement of religious and burial methods 

The so-called Old Kingdom Period from 2,613 to 2,181 BCE also developed further improvements of engineering and architecture. This was the period that produced those famous structures such as the pyramids and the Sphinx at Giza. 

Ruling around 2,670 BCE, King Djoser commissioned the structure of famous the Step Pyramid, situated at Saqqara and finished it around 2,630 BCE, 

But it was the successor King Khufu who built the seventh wonder of the world, the Great Pyramid, which is often referred to as Cheops’ Pyrami. 

Around 2,530 the rulers Khafre and Menkaure both assembled their own particular pyramids, all of which were encased in astonishing white limestone. Not only exclusively did they give the interminable resting spots to the rulers, but also displayed the riches and notoriety of the living divine rulers on earth. This was how as the ancient Egyptians saw their rulers. Throughout the years, researchers have developed different hypotheses on the matter of how these stunning landmarks were built, particularly with regards to the accessible innovation at the time. At first, it was assumed that these forcing structures were constructed utilizing slaves, yet current archeological burrows have dismissed this; it seems much more likely that gifted engineers, craftsmen, paid specialists and soldiers were all involved in constructing these extraordinary landmarks. 







Chapter 7

The First Itnermediate Period

The First Intermediate Period (2,181 – 2,040 BCE) started with the break down of the country into various independent states, split with two cultural centers, one at Heirokonpolis and the other at Thebes. 

Various dynasties were established in each city in Upper and Lower Egypt, until in 2,055 BCE Mentuhotep II, the ruler of Thebes, defeated the the leader of Heirokompolis and reunited the formally divided country under Theban rule. 







Chapter 8

The Classical Period

This was the time when the classical period under king Theban began, which since antiquity was named the Period of kingdoms (2,040 – 1,782 BCE). 

It was at this time that the country began to prosper in most sections of society including the arts, trade and technology; the country even started to export surplus of grains which eventually made other nearby civilizations dependent on Egyptian grain. The capital Thebes grew enormously prosperous and reached new heights in terms of power and culture. 

The Egyptian kings marched their armies southward into Nubia, and constructed forts in order to protect their culture and trading posts from savage tribes. It was also at this time that we see major building works along the Nile river which originally protected the fields from being overflooded, but over time morphed into walls and grain bunkers. 

Flooding were devastating disasters, that resulted often in famines, and around 1700 BCE it even caused a decline at the central administration at Thebes, which lead to the invasion of the Hyksos tribes who started to gain influence in northern Egypt. 

 





Chapter 9

The Second Intermediate Period

The Second Intermediate Period, lasted from 1,782 to 1,570 BCE and refers to the era when the Hyskos ruled Egypt. Scholars still argue about the origins of the Hyksos, it is believed they have their roots in northern Syria. 

They arrived in various waves at around 1,800 BCE and invaded the Sinai peninsula first before continuing on to Avaris and finally Thebes. They seized control over Lower Egypt by 1,720 BCE, subdued Upper Egypt in less than a decade, turning the local aristocracy into their vassals. 

The Hyksos introduced many new type of weapons, for example, the chariot, organized cavalry and the composite bow. However, the local population was treated harshly, and sporadic rebellion began to spread through the nation. 

Around the turn of the century, local fractions united and started various military campaigns to drive the Hyksos and Nubians out, yet all failed, and as a result much of lower Egypt was devastated. 







Chapter 10

The New Kingdom Period

Ahmose I, a solider from Thebes, united the tribes and aristocracy and formed a new Kingdom; he became the first king of a united Egypt to defeat the Hyskos. With Pharao Ahmose I began the New Kingdom Period which lasted from1,570 to 1,069 BCE. 

The ancient title of pharaoh started with king Ahmose I, before him rulers were referred to as kings. Around the ancient city of Thebes we still can see the old remnants of this rein. The famous Temples of Luxor, the Kranak Temple, Abu Simbel and the Valley of the Kings and the Queens were all built during this era. 

An exceptional successful pharao was Tuthmosis I, he expanded the borders to the River Euphrates in Syria and to African Nubia. 

The first female pharaoh, Queen Hatshepsut, , ruled after him peacefully for 22 years, thus establishing new trading routes to places such as Punt, and making the country wealthy once again. 

Tuthmosis III continued her policies, and when he died in 1,425 BCE, the country had vastly increased in power over the region and gained prestige. In ancient times Egypt was a major producer of grain, and around 1,450 BCE various types of beer were introduced; this was also the time when Egyptian scientist introduced general healthcare practices such as hygiene and holistic treatments. It was also an era when means of leisure time became popular, for instance beautiful baths were being established as a means of leisure instead of simply just hygiene. 

In 1,353 BCE pharao Armenhotep IV rose to power, and soon after taking power, he renamed himself into pharao Akhenaten, "The living spirit of Aten". The Armana Period lasted only twenty years, but brought many changes, including religious reforms and transferred the capital to a new site at Amarna. 







Chapter 11


Purchase this book or download sample versions for your ebook reader.
(Pages 1-14 show above.)